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DisastARcons

dcons-logo




A HoloLens application for disaster response teams.

Introductory video that briefly describes the primary use case of the application.

Overview

The main inspiration behind this project was to empower disaster response teams to quickly triage and respond to an emergency, rebuild faster and restore affected areas more effectively, and at the same time take care of the most critical pain points that are faced by the response teams.

DisastARcons allows responders using Microsoft HoloLens to assess damage as needing to be addressed for safety concerns, and to triage sites affected after an emergency event by visually inspecting and marking areas that need attention, or that are health/safety risks. This information is synced via the cloud to the Incident Command System that will use these data points to decide and lead deployment of skilled teams to the area. Subsequent responders will use DisastARcons to find and resolve areas which were tagged by earlier teams in a more efficient manner than conventional methods.

The project was born at the SEA-VR Hackathon IV in Oct 2016, for which we won the Best Humanitarian Assistance Award. Since then, a subset of us have been working on this developing it further for a client.

Role: Project Lead/Product Manager, UX Researcher, Designer, Presenter

Key Activities: Research, Ideation, Prototyping, Design (Environment + Interaction + Key Features Hierarchy), Data Visualization, Coding, Demoing, Presentation and Evangelization, Client Support

Initial Team (at Hackathon): Abhigyan Kaustubh, Amanda Koster, Alicia Lookabill, Steven Dong, Tyler Esselstrom, Drew Stone, Evan Westenberger, Jared Sanson, Sebastian Sanchez

Final Team: Abhigyan Kaustubh, Amanda Koster, Alicia Lookabill, Steven Dong, Tyler Esselstrom, Drew Stone

Timeline: Oct’2016 – Present

Tools: Tableau, AWS, Unity, Balsamiq, Blender, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, Premier, Visual Studio, Hololens + its SDK, Asana

Website: http://disastarcons.com/

 


Process

Process Flow - Page 1 (1)

 

 

Ground work + Research

Our process started with high level analysis of the problem space – why did we care? We realized that it was a space that didn’t have optimal solutions, and solving for the problems in this space meant saving several lives in areas that were affected by natural disasters. This allowed us to inform our emotional motivation, which got our team fired up to develop a solution.

Secondary Research

The second part was defining clearly the actual problem space and our value proposition/ solution, and to gauge its viability and short term and long term adoption. For doing this well, several things needed to be done (in series and in parallel):

  1. Research organizations in this field in terms of their needs, focus, specialties, customers and pain points.
  2. Identify the target customer whom we will be designing our product for: what will be their big problem that we will be fixing with our product?
  3. Identify scenarios in which you see the target customer using our product. Identify one main scenario where our product will be indispensable to them, and understand the frequency of such a scenario occurring.

Meanwhile, in parallel,

  1. Envision how could an organization help out in a disaster affected area?
  2. What are the top 3 things that need to be done in such a scenario, and what is the best way of doing that – be completely agnostic to any technology or process. Understand the need at the most fundamental level, and then reason how best to solve this.
  3. Are we developing a mixed reality solution just because it is a VR hackathon, or is there really a strong need that can only be met by Mixed Reality application at the highest level of efficiency?

We started with the users for whom we were going to design our application. After considering several organizations that were involved in this field, their needs, focus, specialties, customers and pain points, we decided to narrow our target customer to FEMA.

We believed it was vital that we were clear about the above aspects of the projects before we dived into design and development. Hence, we iterated the above exercise a couple of times to gain clearer comprehension.

 

Primary Research

We used two methods for this from the resources that were available: Interviews, Observation through Role Playing

The purpose of the interview was to gain (and cross check) a deeper comprehension of our secondary research, and to get a sanity check from people who were closest to our users, Additionally, none of my team members had been a in the scenario of the intended user before (and had no way of doing so with the resources and time we had), and had limited experience in the field of mixed reality.
Hence, we interviewed experts from the fields of Disaster Management, Accessibility and Mixed Reality.

We interleaved this process with Observation methodology, which we implemented via Role Playing. This enabled us to find more pertinent questions to ask experts as we understood the scenario in the context of a potential user.

We gained the following insights:

  1. A lot of people might be initially enamored my the mixed reality application just because it was “cool” and there was a Hololens involved. This would bias the users feedback on how useful they would find the app, especially if they are using it when in a disaster affected area.
  2. Movies like Iron Man which depict augmented reality and are a significant initial motivation for people experimenting in this field focus mainly on appealing to viewers rather than usefulness to the actor using it. For eg., the field of view should should be as minimalistic as possible to reduce the cognitive load.
  3. The scenario where the application will be used will be hostile and might limit accessibility for users. There should be multiple modes of interacting with the application for critical features.
  4. Along with focusing on minimalism and accessibility, the interface should be as universally comprehensible as possible to understand

The above process allowed us to come up with the following outline for our project (described from target user’s perspective):

  1. Situation:
    1. An 8.8 earthquake happens causing a devastating tsunami
    2. 1st responders have performed search and rescue.
    3. You are a member of FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), responsible for the coordination and response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States and that overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities.
  2. Problem Statement: A Government Accountability Office (GAO) 2015 audit report found:
    1. Response capability gaps through national-level exercises and real-world incidents
    2. Status of agency actions to address these gaps is not collected by or reported to the Department of Homeland Security or Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).–Anthony Kimery, Editor-in-Chief, Homeland Security Today.
  3. Proposed Solution: DisastARcons
    1. DisastARcons uses the Microsoft HoloLens for damage assessment by visually inspecting and marking areas that need attention or that are health/safety risks.
    2. DisastARcons increases efficiency in capturing and sharing accurate data AND measures the time between identification and resolution.
  4. Why Hololens?
    1. Always in front of you: The HoloLens utilizes the user’s entire field of view vs. most devices, such as a cell phone that uses a limited rectangle of view and is dependent on the user’s way of holding the device.
    2. Example use case: For the second shift of maintenance workers, all data will always be easily accessible when relevant.
    3. Hands free
    4. Highest fidelity: HoloLens can do 3D, 360° (4π Steradian) construction of its surroundings.

Gaining Product Clarity

Integrating the above, we get the following high level scenario:

 

High Level Scenario - Page 1
Storyboarding

 

Storyboard

Scoping

Following the above process, we scoped our project in terms of main goals and extension goals, as follows.

Main Goal:

  1. To build a Hololens application that has the simplest possible interface that allows the user to mark hazards and assign severity ranking to them with accuracy and precision based on the user’s inspection of their surroundings.
    1. The marking of hazards will take place through tagging, where appropriate holograms will be attached to the affected area.
    2. The severity of the hazard will be indicated by the color of the hologram.
  2. Safety mechanism: Since the user will be using this in a dangerous area, there should be a way for the user to call for help (911), easily & intentionally.

Extension Goals:

  1. Establishing a connection with the ICS (or a remote server) to populate data collected from different field agents.
  2. Update the information points on every hololens in the field
  3. Send the information to ICS for analysis
  4. Craft an interface for the ICS to analyze the data quickly and give out directives to field agents.
  5. Add to the existing backend of ICS that allows them to utilize the hololens data points along with others in a seamless fashion.

Ideation

The ideation process involved condensing data from results from different research methods/activities like roll playing, using custom hologram app in Hololens, 3D construction, expert interviews, concepts in accessibility, etc.

We used this to play around with different interface ideas and interaction methods while trying to refine the use case to utmost leanness.

Based on our results, we came up with the following flow:

The Disasters - Phase 1 - Page 1

 

Phase 2- ICS + Maintenance Personnel POV - Page 1

Design

Mockups

The ideation process was translated into a UI flow for the app’s interface – with special emphasis on simplicity and ease of access.

 

 UI Flow - Page 1


Result

We build a Mixed Reality Hololens application that allows the user to apply persistent tags to different things in their real environment and rate the severity level, while recording and transferring the most accurate set of data points describing hazards (that can be later located by other FEMA agents and attended to) to the remote Incident Command System, which is analyzing all the input data streams and giving the users prioritized and relevant information on their field of view, enabling them to restore the most critical affected areas while remaining safe and keeping a track new potentially hazardous developments in their neighborhood.

Next Steps

We are currently working on our primary extension goals (which is now are main goal):

To build the interface for the ICS and establish efficient data transmission in-between field agents, and with the remote Incident Command System.

The process for that can be best represented by the following flow chart:

Building a functioning Dashboard for SC (Front end + Back end) - Page 1 (1)

 

The prototype for eventual incident command center’s interface to get an overview of various things happening in the affected area is as follows:

FINAL preso

Memory Game

Screen Shot 2016-07-12 at 3.56.46 PM-min

Built a Mixed Reality game for kids during the HoloHacks in May, 2016.

Overview

Memory Palace is a Windows Hololens application that enables the user to enhance their memory for specific objects by using the spatial mapping of the brain in the current/familiar environment.

Role: Product Management, UX Researcher, VR Interaction Designer

Key activities: Secondary ResearchBrainstorming, Ideation, Roleplaying, Prototyping, Feature Identification and design, VR Interaction and UI Flow, Coding, Presentation, Project Management

Team Members: Abhigyan Kaustubh, Malika Lim, John Shaff, Kevin Owyang, Hailey

Timeline: 36 hours

Tools:  Unity3D, Windows 10, MS Visual Studio, Hololens SDK, Maya

Demo Video:

 

Process

From our brainstorming session, where we started with our inspiration, value propositions, user needs and team skill set, we scoped it down and designed and developed towards our final product.

Process Flow - Memory Game (HoloHacks)

Some pictures from our project:

IMG_20160522_163113 IMG_20160522_163253 IMG_20160522_163137 IMG_20160522_163158 IMG_20160522_163210 IMG_20160522_163226 IMG_20160522_163234  IMG_20160522_163304

Random UX Logs

sketchbook




Sketches/ Doodling

Fun with team

Infant Mortality in Africa

2000px-HIV_in_Africa_2011.svg

Exploratory data analysis using data visualization for finding trends/factors concerning infant mortality in Africa.

Introduction

Conducted exploratory analysis of World Economic Data through effective data visualization and identified strong correlation towards possible factors contributing towards infant mortality in Africa.

For this project, I compiled the entire procedure along with my calculations and findings, which can be viewed here.

For accessing the Tableau file, please click here.

Learn More

Crisis Clinic Project

crisisclinic




Overview

This project explores the different methods used to analyze the calls received by the Crisis Clinic across geography and time in order to find useful insights in terms of discovering important trends, correlations and possible causations.  We analyze the call trends of 4 different lines: Crisis Line, Teen Link, Recovery  Line,  and  211,  and  specifically  focus  on  the  most common problem areas and needs, which we have analyzed with respect to geography in terms of ZIP codes and cities, and with respect to time from January 2010 to May 2014.  Our  exploration  with  the  data  shows  that  it  is  possible  to extract  useful  information  on  the  call  behavior  of  the  callers across  geography  and  time  through  visual  analysis.  Based  on these results,  we  explain  how  managerial  decisions  specifically relevant  to funding  of  the  Crisis  Clinic  can  be enhanced, and also focus on the aspect of increasing public awareness through hosting the final set of visualizations as a dashboard on Tableau Public.

For a quick look describing the process and results, click here. For the detailed report, please click here.

Role: UX Researcher, Designer, Data Wrangler, Presenter

Key Activities: Literature review, data curation, interviews, prototyping and user evaluation, data visualization, usability study, presentation

Team Members: Abhigyan Kaustubh (AK), Emily Greenberg, Lana Pledger, Rijuta Trivedi

Timeline:  Apr 2014 – Jun 2014 (10 weeks)

Tools: Excel, Tableau, Powerpoint, SQL

Introduction

Crisis Clinic is at the heart of the Seattle-King County safety net providing a broad array of telephone-based crisis intervention and information and referral services. For many people in emotional distress or needing community services assistance, they are their “first call for help.” Every year, the Crisis Clinic receives a huge number of phone calls from King County residents in need of emotional support and community services. It has four main programs through which it provides its services:

  1. The 24 Hour Crisis Line offers emotional support to those in crisis or considering suicide;
  2. King County 2-1-1 offers information and referrals to community services based on its database of more than 5000 services;
  3. WA Recovery Help Line provides a state wide service offering emotional support and linkage to substance abuse, problem gambling and mental health services to anyone in Washington State;
  4. Teen Link offers emotional support and assistance to teens by providing a teen-answered help line.

As a nonprofit organization, Crisis Clinic depends on the financial support of local government, United Way of King County, corporations and foundations, and the generosity of donors to keep its doors open and provide services.  In addition, it also serves as a central point for crisis resources that includes training, outreach, and a bridge to other organizations that may provide specialized support.

In this project we investigate the different ways of making interactive visualizations of the callers’ dataset to gain insights into its presence in the King County area, and also explore and understand patterns and trends in the calls they receive across geography and time.  We envision that these visualizations and insights will allow the staff at Crisis Clinic to better allocate resources in a targeted way, more effectively communicate the impact of Crisis Clinic to current and prospective funders, and allow the general public to better understand and appreciate its work in the King County area.

Learn More

SafePath

SafePath

High fidelity prototype for a mobile app for increasing pedestrian safety at night.

Overview

SafePath is a mobile application that enables the user in finding the safest path between two points on the map at night, specifically designed for U District area and University of Washington Seattle community.

Role: Product Manager, UX Researcher, Prototyper, Interaction Designer

Key Activities: Secondary research, primary research, ideation, interviewing, shadowing, cognitive walkthroughs, wireframing, prototyping, usability testing, interaction design, interface design

Initial Team Members: Abhigyan Kaustubh, Adrian D’sa, Carrie Wang, Gloria Deng
(Continued working on it independently on the side.)

Initial Timeline: Sept 2012 – Dec 2012, 10 weeks

Tools: JustProto, MS Power Point, MS Excel, Paper, Pencil

Process

Executed UCD process to design the application and its experience.

Process Flow - SafePath (4)

 

Brainstorming and Planning

The initial steps involved understanding the scenario in which the user will be using this in, identifying the main needs of the user in that scenario, and transforming those into use case and features. We started this off via group discussion and lots of sketching (some of them are featured below).

Research

Interviews

We conducted interviewing and stakeholder analysis, the results for which are compiled here.

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 10.18.05 AM     Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 10.16.14 AMA snippet of our gathered survey data.

Analysis and Requirements

Based on these, we got the following key insights in the form of user design requirements list:

1. The solution should show streets where criminal activities happen in real time, as people can avoid such places and choose another street.

2. The solution should be connected to the Police database containing historical and current records of criminal activities that have taken place in the University District, in order to retrieve this information for the benefit of the user.

3. The solution should update its data in real time in order to efficiently record crime and inform the user. 4. The solution should be connected to a city mapping interface, as it is easier for people to get the information of a street on a map than using a text description.

5. The solution should have a user tracking functionality, as people would require to fix their position on the map, incase if any incident occurs to him/her.

6. The solution should show security statistics of each street clearly, as people would want to easily judge which street to walk back home on.

7. The solution should tell user details of a street, such as the crowd density, luminosity and if there are any shelters nearby, as people want to know the elements that make them feel safe or unsafe.

8. The solution should have the ability to tell the users which path will be the safest from start point to their destinations according to the time of travel, as the user would want to choose another path back home if a crime has occurred on his current path.

9. The solution should be able to record crime in audio and video format, and synchronize this data with the Police database.

10. The solution should have an easy to use interface in order to cater to all types of users (novice to excellent) of technology and to an age group between 18 and 65.

Refined Design question Based on our research, we decided to refine our design question to get a sharper focus.

New design question: How can college students and young professors avoid dangerous street when walking home late at night in the University District?

Initial design question: How can you utilize the crowd to reduce criminal activities on the streets, when heading home late night?

After our research and discussions, we found out that the initial question was a bit ambiguous and did not reflect our theme clearly.

There was no mention of:

 The type of user group our product was focused towards (students, professionals, party goers etc).

 The locality where criminal activities take place.

 The medium used in returning home (walking, public transport, car, etc).

Hence, our design question was remolded according to the user research survey conducted and the personas defined for our product. It addressed the users who would be interacting with the product, and the location and the medium used to return home late at night.

Personas

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 9.23.36 AM Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 9.23.48 AM Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 9.24.03 AM

Key Features

Based on all the brainstorming and analysis, we chose 3 main features to incorporate in the application:

1. Gesture alert

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 10.31.00 AM

Alerting the Police via touch based gesture recognition software is an important add-on to our mobile application for smartphones. This feature aptly fits the requirement of our third Persona „Peter Professional‟. Using this feature, the victim can alert the Police in the vicinity through a signal sent by sliding his/her finger over the phone‟s display screen. The working model for this feature is shown in the sketch. Initially, the user has to set his/her unique gesture on the phone by clicking on “Add Gesture” button in the applications main interface. The application retrieves this gesture and stores it internally. The user will be allowed to change the gesture at any time while the application is running on his phone. Also, the user can customize a message such as „I am under attack. Please save me.‟ on the interface which will be stored in the application. Thus, when a user is under attack, he/she can signal the Police without getting noticed by the criminal. The Police will receive a signal containing the message saved by the user and his/her location information to help track the victim.

This feature will be beneficial for the user as he/she can signal the Police easily and secretly without getting noticed. Although the victim could face hostility in the interim, this application could promptly communicate to the Police while the crime is taking place. Also, since these gestures are customizable, a user can choose a gesture that is easy to remember and maneuver while under attack.

2. Data Collection

Data Collection

Data collection is one of the most important requirements of our design. Through this, we can collect the information regarding various criminal activities taking place in the locality. When users encounter any kind of misdemeanor, they can use this application to report their findings to others as well as to the Police. In this interface, we offer five features of describing criminal activities: site, type, extent of danger, description, and who the reporter wants to report to.

  1. Site Get the location of the user automatically or prompt the user to enter the location of the crime manually.
  2. Type Choosing the type of crime makes it easier for other users to figure out what criminal activity happened at that location and therefore, decide whether to choose an alternate route to avoid it.
  3. Extent of danger This shows the intensity of crime taking place in that locality. Users can choose a scale from 0-5 indicated by stars, where zero means low danger and five means maximum level of danger.
  4. Description Users can type in details about the crime. For example, how many of them were present, physical description, type of weapon used, etc.
  5. Report to Users can choose whom they want to report to. For a crime of relatively lower extent of danger, users can choose to report only to the application. For dangerous criminal activities such as mugging, stealing, murder, etc., they would also want to report the activity to the Police.
3. Path finding and Group Forming

The following designs basically encompass two ideas that have to be used in succession, the second one being optional and dependent upon the user‟s preference.

The first here deals with finding the path from source to the destination. The user can enter the source or it can be automatically be inputted by the system using GPS, which is a feature common in most cell phones. After this the user enters the destination where he needs to go, and then chooses the time he will be traveling at. Then the application will give the “live” path based on the parameters like well-lit paths, presence of people, residential areas, areas with 24/7 shops in immediate vicinity, roads part of or near main roads, etc. These parameters will be shown to the user who will have the freedom to choose (the shaded and encircled ones in the sketch) the parameters he wants to keep, and the paths will be shown accordingly. Also, this application will be connected to the Empathy Database and the Police Crime Record Database, and will be able to give updates about the paths in real time (recent criminal activities happened, criminal activity being reported by another user by Data Collection feature of the application), and then give choices and suggestions to the users accordingly.

This is the second part which is optional and can be used by the people who would want company of other people to walk at night. The user just has to click and hold the crowd symbol (the second one in parameters) and then can reach the above interface for forming a group. This grouping function helps to show people, who also want to be accompanied, on map as a red spot. If the red spot is clicked, it will show the information of those people (information that those people have pre-decided, just like people choose how much of their facebook profile is visible and to whom), so that the people can be identified. The information will mostly include the time when they will most probably travel on these street, their path and their message. This information can be collected by the person‟s facebook/ LinkedIn profile, and Contacts of the user himself. But this is the case when the user knows the other person. There can be situations in which there are other people who want to be accompanied and have no problems with walking with other people they don‟t know. To overcome this problem, the application will have its own private database wherein people who fall in this category can sign up or add their records, with a valid SSN/ Passport Number, so that the contacts authenticity is confirmed. Hence, clicking on the ‘Get contact’ icon, the user will be able to see the information that those people have made visible to others in the application‟s database. After this, if the user chooses, he can get in contact with them via message or call by clicking on “Send Request”, and then, depending upon mutual agreement and understanding between the two, groups can be formed.

Design

After identifying personas, we performed rapid paper prototyping and sketching, and conducted user testing to come up with following hi-fi prototypes:

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 9.22.08 AM

 

Evaluation and Testing

For evaluation and testing, we created a hi-fi prototype using JustProto, which can be found at my GitHub page.

We performed user testing on our target users who fit our initial 3 personas, and improved the design though iterations.

AfterParty

lights-party-dancing-music

Designed a machine, interaction methods and UI with my team to meet post-party needs of people in Las Vegas.

Overview

Our group was tasked with designing the use and user experience for a repurposed cigarette vending machine. We decided to focus on solving issues related with cities that come under “party culture”.

Here’s a quick slide deck storyboarding the concept, value and use case.

Team Members: Abhigyan Kaustubh, Brian Espinosa, Divyanshu Mohan

Timeline: Sept 2013- Dec 2013 (10 weeks)

Roles: UX Researcher, UX Designer

Key Activities: Secondary Research, Primary Research, Ideation, Localization, Sketching, Wireframing

Process

Process Flow - AfterParty (1)

 

Ground Work + Research + Analysis + Planning

We believe that “Party Culture” is universal and can be found throughout the world.
Party Culture can be broadly defined as a culture where people have disposable income for leisure, and are young, dance-centric, loose, inebriated, and enjoy the nightlife. A need we have discovered in these Party Cultures is what happens when the party is over. Women wearing high-heels need relief that doesn’t leave them barefoot on nasty and dirty streets. We propose to repurpose cigarette vending machines to dispense needed after-party relief. Items would include: comfortable slippers for women, along with other things like water, Ibuprofen, condoms, etc. which most party goers need.

Party goers aren’t the only focus of this venture. We will be utilizing the ‘Philanthropic Capitalism’ business model, inspired by TOMS, to extend the reach of
these relief vending machines to assist those in need. These relief machines will provide footwear, blankets, and etc. to communities in need. Essentially, the Party Culture will be providing the funds to support this philanthropic venture.

Since this was part of an International UX and Communication class, we decided to focus on Las Vegas.

 

Ideation + Prototyping + Design

Sketching, Evaluation, Brainstorming in Rapid Iterations

User Flow (Lo-Fidelity)
i. Payton comes out of the club and sees the vending machine.
image-5-e1486528826585  image-7-e1457011148779  image-8-e1457011176926
ii.  Screen 1:
ii.a. Video of a lady wearing heels with aching legs, goes to the vending machine, selects the shoes, buys them, gets them out of the machine, and then wears them with an expression of contentment/ relief.
ii.b. There’s a button (Proceed) on the screen which takes the payton to Screen 2.
iii. Screen 2: 
image-6-e1457011285102   image-e1457011118129
The goodies are displayed on the screen, with their respective costs.
The Next button takes the payton to Screen 3.
                            –  If the Comfies/ slippers are selected, then it goes to Screen 3a.
                            –  Else, the payton is taken directly to Screen 3.
Else, if payton doesn’t do anything for 30 seconds, the transaction times out and Screen 1 is displayed again.
iv. Screen 3a:
image-1-e1457011225707 (2)
     The payton selects the size of the comfies, which can be adjusted by +/- buttons.
      Upon pressing Next, the payton is taken to Screen 3.
      The Back button takes the payton back to Screen 2.
      Else, if payton doesn’t do anything for 30 seconds, the transaction times out and Screen 1 is displayed again.
 
v. Screen 3:
image-2-e1457011211673
      All the items selected are shown here with their costs, and with the total cost.
      The slippers are shown along with their size.
      The Back button takes the payton back to Screen 3a  if the slippers were selected. Else, it goes back to Screen 2.
      The Buy button takes the payton to Screen 4 for payment.
       Else, if payton doesn’t do anything for 30 seconds, the transaction times out and Screen 1 is displayed again.
vi. Screen 4
image-3
     Message to enter the credit/debit card in the slot is displayed, along with a picture of the same.
     The Back button takes the payton back to Screen 3a.
     When the payton inserts the card, if successful, the payment is processed and it goes to Screen 4a. The receipt and the goodies are dispersed at this point.
     Else, in case of an error, an error message to retry is shown (Screen 4b).
     Else, if payton doesn’t do anything for 30 seconds, the transaction times out and Screen 1 is displayed again.
 
vii. Screen 4a
image-4-e1457011253689
     The confirmation message is shown along with a message to collect stuff from the below (remains for 10 seconds, and then Screen 1 is shown. (The transaction ends with the confirmation message).
viii. Screen 4b
     The error message remains till successful payment or 45 seconds (whichever happens first), after which Screen 4 is shown again.

Wireframing

 

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.07.18 AM
Payton comes out of the club and sees the vending machine.
Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.09.31 AM
Payton considers the items she wants to buy

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.26.21 AM  Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.10.04 AM  Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.10.28 AMPayton decides she wants to buy slippers. She selects it by tapping on the screen and giving her measurements. The successful end result of this Ix is denoted by a check mark on the item on the screen.

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.13.01 AM  Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.29.29 AM
Payton selects other items she wants, and then taps the “Next” button.

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.13.58 AM  Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.31.13 AM
Her interaction leads to a confirmation screen with her selected items and their costs. She then proceeds by tapping “Buy”.

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.14.17 AM  Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.14.44 AM
She proceeds with payment using her credit card.

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.15.01 AM  Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.15.18 AM
After the payment is confirmed, her items are dispensed one at a time, with corresponding status updates on the screen.

Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.15.36 AM  Screen Shot 2016-03-03 at 5.15.52 AM
After the transaction is completed, a “Thank You” screen appears with options to quit the process, or to continue purchasing.

 

Post- Launch Research

Metrics of Success:

1. Amount of items sold

  • Per Week
  • Per Month
  • In a year

2. Customer Satisfaction

  • Survey Link in receipt
  • Company URL on product (company site will have survey)

Ethnography in Tahiti

Tiki_Marquesas_Louvre_MH_87-50-1

Conducted ethnography in Tahiti, French Polynesia, on its indigenous medical system and its impact on the cultural identity of the native population.

Overview

This project started off as a way of understanding the medical knowledge systems in Tahiti and the research question for this started with “how do people living in Tahiti and Huahine use the oral traditional medical knowledge and why”. This allowed in gaining pertinent data and understanding of the culture, at same time creating enough boundaries and yet leaving the scope open enough to carry out the secondary research to gain a better understanding of the new culture, so as to pose better / targeted questions and to eventually prepare the research proposal.

Author: Abhigyan Kaustubh

Supervisor: Chris Rothschild

Timeline: Dec 2013 to March 2014.
This ethnographic study lasted for about 3+ months, 10 weeks of which were spent living with the native population of Tahiti, Huahine and Mo’orea islands of French Polynesia.

Research methods used:

  • Experiment design
  • Interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Literature review
  • Ethnography

For the full report, please click here.

Research Proposal Process

 

Process Flow - Ethnography

 

Research Topic

How do people living in Tahiti and Huahine use the oral traditional medical knowledge and why?

Background and Justification

The world, in particular the developed nations, have undergone a lot of progress in many realms of information, medical being one of them. Many societies have flourished in the last three to four centuries. But this has, at times, been at the expense of some of the ancient societies like the ones in Tahiti and Huahine, and their indigenous knowledge, many of which have come close to the brink of extinction. These ancient societies have been in existence for over a millennia in their indigenous locations, and have as a result developed knowledge systems that has allowed them to live symbiotically with their environment for this long stretch of time (Clark, 1994).

But, their knowledge systems and, their entire cultures by extension, had been thought to be unrefined, primitive and inferior by the ones (the Western world) who invaded and eventually took ownership of their lands, mostly because the indigenous cultures didn’t fit the Western definition of being modern and developed (Clark, 1994). In addition, to assert authority and rule, it was seen imperative by the Western invaders to impose their own knowledge systems on the indigenous population, and to showcase these as being superior to the knowledge systems of the indigenous population. In doing so, many of the indigenous knowledge systems were suppressed forcefully, and many others almost went out of existence or usage due to the induced feeling of inferiority and shame, which has continued to this day, albeit less aggressively.

As a result, the vast amount of information pertaining to sustainably coexisting with the environment is in the danger of extinction. These chunks of information have been refined across millennia, and could therefore arguably be much distilled, and possibly not be available in any of the modern information systems. Further, the identity of these indigenous populations, which is rooted in this information, also gets dangerously threatened (Kihwelo, 2005). It is therefore important to respectfully restore and revive these indigenous knowledge systems as much as possible so as to reestablish the pride and true identity of the natives, and upon permission from them , use the wisdom therein for their wellbeing, as well as the rest of the world, with due credit to them.

Traditional medical knowledge is an extremely important aspect of the knowledge contained in the oral traditions of Tahiti and Huahine as it deals with the survival and longevity of the population there, which are of paramount importance in the sustenance of any community. Further, this knowledge has contributed to the successful survival of the indigenous population for over a millennia before the invasion, which substantiates its merit considerably.

Hence, researching the usage of oral traditional medical knowledge by the people living in Tahiti and Huahine, and their reasons behind in doing so, would be instrumental in understanding the nature and intricacies of this information, and would help in addressing the aforementioned concerns regarding indigenous information.

Research Questions and Expected Findings

1. Among which demographics is the traditional medical knowledge being used/ not being used, and why / why not?

i. Hypothesis: Most of the people living in Tahiti with a comparatively higher standard of living would be the ones who use the traditional medicines the least.

ii. Justification:

  • First, most of the people living in Tahiti have been educated through the French education system, and hence are more familiar with the French aspect of things rather than the Traditional Tahitian ones. In addition, benefits provided by the French government to the patients (like sick leave, reimbursement, etc.) utilizing the French medical system would make them favor the French medicines more and the traditional medicines less (as both type of medicines can heal).
  • Second, the data from three of the interviews substantiates this (Mama Doe, Personal Communication, 25th February, 2014) (A. LePendu, Personal Communication, 10th January, 2014 to 9th March, 2014)(A. LePendu, Personal Communication, 10th January, 2014 to 9th March, 2014).

2. In which location is the Traditional medical system being actively used?

i. Hypothesis: Most of the people who utilize traditional medicines extensively would be the people who are living in “rural” environments – especially where French influence isn’t strong, like Huahine, and in very remote parts of Tahiti.

ii. Justification: the data from two of the interviews substantiates this (Mama Doe, Personal Communication, 25th February, 2014) (A. LePendu, Personal Communication, 10th January, 2014 to 9th March, 2014)

3. What are the different types of ailments / conditions that are being treated/ prevented by the use of this knowledge, and why?

i. Hypothesis: The main ailments that might be being treated or prevented by the use of Traditional medicines are the ones that have been indigenous to Tahiti and Huahine.

ii. Justification: The traditional medical system was developed to protect against or combat from those diseases or inconsistencies in the body that used to happen to the indigenous people before the invasion of foreigners, who brought a new set of diseases with them which the indigenous population had no immunity or cure against, and which had eventually resulted in massive deaths of the indigenous population. Thus, the traditional medicines would be more apt for the indigenous diseases, and hence would be used against the same.

Research Methodologies

  1. The initial step would be literature review on relevant topics and collecting basic background information like geographic spread, urban-rural split, the government, and other pertinent things. Armed with this information, the researcher will be able to make educated modification that could be required in the research, and would also come across as knowledgeable and interested (Phillips, 1998).
  2. To ensure in-depth information retrieval and to maintain good relations with the local population, involvement in their community and proving genuine interest are of paramount importance. This would require staying and getting involved in activities with different communities in Tahiti and Huahine for extended periods of time (1 to 6 weeks), and to prove your positive intent (Phillips, 1998).
  3. Next target or respondent groups will be formed so that the data that would be gathered from them would be easy to classify and analyze (Phillips, 1998). These groups would be based on demographic measures and behavior so that the data being collected from comparatively “developed” and “developing” parts of Tahiti and Huahine can be normalized and analyzed accurately. The best way to connect with these potential interviewees would be to ask them about this during community involvement activities. The contacts made here will soon provide other contacts for data collection, who will be interviewed later.
  4. The primary method of data collection will be mostly through interviews with people, the informality of which will be tailored to the interviewee’s demographics information, their current environment and their preference. This will help in determining the peoples’ perceptions of traditional medicine across all the pertinent occupations, while the chief demographic measures (mentioned below) will help in providing a “user-centered” perspective on these medicines.

a. The main demographic indicators would be:

  1. Old demographic (equal to or greater than 60 years)
  2. Middle aged demographic (between 30(included) to 60 years)
  3. Young demographic (from 16 to 30 years)
  4. Location : Tahiti or Huahine

b. The main occupations that would be considered would be:

  1. Priests or Tahuas (Spiritual healers)
  2. Traditional Medical healers
  3. Specialists in the field of Traditional medicines
  4. French medical doctors
  5. Educators/ teachers
  6. People who work in health administration and social security

c. Different people from the community.

Data Analysis Approach

Aside from the initial data that would be collected during literature review (which would be quantitative), the data collected during the research process from then on (through interviews) will be qualitative in nature.

Early Insights

  1. The maternal and neo- natal health are not a very big issue in Tahiti, and most of the medical requirements of the people (especially concerning new born babies) are met through the French medical system in the form of vaccinations and required medications and tonics. Moreover, this (maternal and neo-natal health) was too narrow an area of focus and the broader aspect of traditional medicines needed to be understood first with respect to its effect in the lives of the people of Tahiti and Huahine, which is what the research question morphed into eventually.
  2. Pertaining to this, the Traditional medicines are mainly preventive in nature, though they can also be used to cure diseases in which case, the medicine woks directly on the cause of the disease (virus, bacteria, etc.) rather than only addressing the symptoms first (J.H. Bouit, Personal Communication, 25th February, 2014). The medicines are generally administered by two types of people: the Healers, and the Tahua (priest). The former deals mainly with typical diseases that are caused by usual reasons, while the later deals with curses/ “ghost” diseases which could be caused due to ancestral displeasure, ill will from someone, etc. Also, the former ones are generally only good for those diseases which are native to the islands, and not the foreign ones that were brought to the island at the time of invasion, and from the foreigners who have come since then.
  3. On the other hand, the ghost diseases are usually identified when there is no logical explanation for someone to contract a particular disease and yet they do, or if a disease doesn’t abate even though the required medical treatment (Traditional or French) for the disease is being given. Aside from this, the Tahua also performs various ceremonial activities like conducting religious activities, circumcision (seen as a rite of passage), casting protective spells on an individual, family or locality, or blessing people in general. In addition, the medicines that are prepared depend on the patient’s body type, diet, habits, and the disease they are suffering from. In terms of social order, Tahuas are much greater than Healers, and are also in smaller numbers compared to them (Healers).
  4. Besides this, there is a significant percentage of population that relies on the French medical system. French medical system is mostly free for all the people of Tahiti, and has a deep reach in the various regions of Tahiti by virtue of various clinics that are scattered throughout the island. Also, upon falling ill and consulting French medical doctors, any expense that may be incurred by the patient is generally reimbursed by the government, along with benefits like sick leave, which are not available to those who may solely use the traditional medicines for curing their illness.
  5. During the interviews in which the aforementioned data was collected, it was also observed that the information that the people (interviewees)share depended on the level of trust they had on the researchers, which was gauged by the interviewee by the researcher’s interest and quality of involvement in their community. In addition to this, it significantly helped in gaining deeper information when the interviews were conducted in English (when both the parties were comfortable in it) as it allowed greater understanding of the subject and higher maneuverability with the questions.
  6. Finally, revival of traditional medical knowledge is a definite possibility as there is still considerable interest among many people about this knowledge. Also, some of the interviewees in the field of medicine stated that the traditional medicines in combination with the French medicines, where applicable yield the best results. These, along with the strong efforts being put by people (specialists, healers, and educators) in the field of traditional medicines to teach their successors (their kids, other family members, students, etc.), and the feeling of its considerable importance that seems to be present among many people in Tahiti and Huahine could be powerful factors in revival of this knowledge.

Challenges and Considerations

1. Challenges

i. In getting access to people

  • Had very little prior notice of who I would be meeting where. So had almost no time for preparation for the interview. Hence, should know who is where and what their area of expertise is, instead of asking them that during the interview.
  • Language barrier – and the loss in information and flexibility in questioning.
  • For better quality of information, some level of cultural involvement and integration is important prior to interviews – which takes time.
  • Most people have different occupations that they attend to during the day, so scheduling an interview with them may get problematic if the researcher isn’t in contact (and in good standing) with a local.
  • Though the local people are welcoming and amiable, they may not have the time to go to extra lengths of involving the researchers into their culture and activities unless the researchers have an known and important brand (like UW), and are in contact with eminent people (like A-Dre Lependu) who have contacts and influence in the different localities of research. Further, the entire process of cultural integration becomes swifter as well.

ii. Time periods – ideal time

a. For concentrated fieldwork, 5-6 months should be enough.

2. Considerations

  1. i. Understand the background framework first, then decide on a direction and make educated assumptions to plan out the research phase. In addition, never proceed to the intervention phase unless the research has been adequately done. Also, every research project doesn’t need to end up eventually into an intervention project.
  2. ii. People and the language they use to communicate fluently plays a very important role when doing fieldwork research in terms of interviews. The researcher shall be able to understand better and ask much more pertinent questions to the people if they can talk in the same language with high fluency.
  3. iii. Though having a competent translator is incredibly helpful, getting to deeper questions is at times too time consuming, and there is often a lot of information loss and lack of clarity in the process.
  4. iv. For better quality of information, some level of cultural involvement and integration is important prior to interviews – which would require time, patience, and cultural adjustment and acceptance on the researcher’s part.
  5. v. Though the different activities like interviewing, surveys, etc. are very important and required research processes, the way in which they need to be carried out needs to be tailored depending on the audience. For instance, you are likely to get deeper information on an informal meeting over dinner rather than on a formal interview.
  6. vi. Have a team with 5-7 members. This is extremely helpful in seeing the various aspects of information that is being obtained, and in accurately deciding the future steps that need to be taken. Also, conflicting opinions about the assumptions being made as part of the entire process would help in making the end result as accurate as possible.
  7. vii. If the researchers are not fluent in French, Tahitian, and English, they should ensure that they have access to translators who are proficient in these languages along with theirs. Even if the researchers are fluent, having access to a person who is familiar with both the local and the researcher’s society’s norms and nuances could be beneficial in understanding the local society.
  8. viii. In addition, amount of data collected and work done increases by a factor of the number of team mates. Also, it is easier to stay motivated and determined when working in groups than working alone. The aforementioned insights, challenges and considerations have become apparent based on my fieldwork and research that I carried out with my translators and the interviewees.

(M. Tang, Personal Communication, 20th January, 2014 to 9th March, 2014)
(A. LePendu, Personal Communication, 10th January, 2014 to 9th March, 2014)
(A. LePendu, Personal Communication, 10th January, 2014 to 9th March, 2014)
(F. Kataleya, Personal Communication, 17th January, 2014)
(Tameava, Personal Communication, 23rd January, 2014)
(Lady Hinano, Personal Communication, 4 th February, 2014)
(Tangaroa, Personal Communication, 7th February, 2014)
(Serge Dunis, Personal Communication, 11th February, 2014)
(Head Priest at Maroto Valley, Personal Communication, 15th February, 2014)
(Mama Doe, Personal Communication, 25th February, 2014)
(Pito, Personal Communication, 28th February, 2014)

3. Assumptions:

  1. The research question that was chosen initially was too specific. It was based on a prior experience in similar arena (in rural Uttar Pradesh, India) without performing any literature review in the Traditional medicine area of French Polynesia. This assumption was eventually proven wrong, and the research question was changed to the current one.
  2. It is assumed that the Traditional medical knowledge and the system employed to contain and transmit it is consistent across Tahiti and Huahine.
  3. It is assumed that a single person team for this proposal would be enough. This was a disadvantage as even though time was spent with research professionals and field experts, the time required to be put in for bouncing ideas of each other (team mates) and evaluating the next course of action by considering multiple opinions is critical.
  4. It is assumed that the amount of information loss due to language barrier wouldn’t be significant enough to derail the project or push the researcher in the wrong direction indefinitely. Also, it is assumed that the translator is competent and is portraying all information as accurately as possible, even though it might be of a sensitive or uncomfortable nature to them.

Areas for future research

Areas of future research could build upon this research and may lead into a specific direction pertaining to certain types of medicines targeted towards specific diseases, infirmities, or some specific bodily problems.

Research could also be carried on how can the knowledge in different medical systems in the French Polynesian environment be applied to yield optimal benefits to the people living there (and elsewhere in the world, by their permission and with due credit) without posing a threat to their cultural identity and loss of their traditions.

References/ Works Cited

1. Clark, S.S. (1994). Ethnicity Embodied: Evidence from Tahiti. Ethnology, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 211-227.
2. Kihwelo, P. F. (2005). Indigenous Knowledge: What Is It? How and Why Do We Protect It?-The Case of Tanzania. JOURNAL OF WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, 8(3), 345–360.
3. Cox, P. A. (1991). Polynesian herbal medicine. Islands, plants, and Polynesians: an introduction to Polynesian ethnobotany.
4. Phillips, S. (1998). An insider’s guide to conducting effective research on developing countries. CORPORATE RESEARCHERS CONFERENCE. Article ID: 19981107

Mo'orea

Outline of the Trip

Pre-departure

  • The entire program started with a lot of pre-departure planning, things from packing the right tools to learning about the new culture though literature review and establishing contacts with few well connected locals of Tahiti.
  • During this phase, we (My supervisor, other students with different research ideas, and myself)  also went though various orientations in which we got to know each other and the Tahitian culture better. This involved things from aquatinting with others temperament to effective and ineffective group behaviors in foreign environments.
  • We also took care of vaccines, and any other kind of training/preparation (swimming) that would be essential to know once we reached there.

En-route

  • Took a seriously LONG flight (~20 hrs). A useful thing that my supervisor did was taking sleeping pills in the flight – he woke up well rested when we landed.
  • In hindsight, this is incredibly good as at times the new environment is much different from the ones that the researcher is generally used to, and entering it well-rested helps one keep cooler temperament and higher immunity. (In our case, the temp at the Tahitian airport was close to 50° Celsius).
  • I used my flight time resting and chatting with my neighbors.

At Destination

  • We arrived at the Papeete Airport in Tahiti, and were driven to our accommodations, where we had another reorientation talk.
  • After this, we explored the city and it’s neighborhood as tourists – we turned it into a treasure hunt with many of the important sites/ places in the downtown area included on our route (with the generous help from our hosts). This neatly began our acclimatization process and allowed us to get a big picture of things, as well as in reorienting our expectations.
  • I then started with my ethnographic research to create my research proposal. This began with choosing a general area of interest (mine was medical health) and conducting secondary research to get more data and form a good research question. This then bled into designing the write experiments and choosing the appropriate methods for collecting and analyzing data.
  • During the entire period, I collected data on my project though interviews, focus groups, literature reviews (papers, videos/documentaries), and observing the cultural traditions and festivals/ ceremonies of Tahitians. We also consulted with several academics and several other different factions of the society (Head Priest, Healer, Doctors, Tattoo Artists, Dancers, Singers, Business Owners, Teachers, etc). The interesting part about the Tahitian knowledge system (which was mainly preserved though oral tradition) was distributed across many factions, each knowing the part that is most useful to them.
  • We synthesized all the data that we had and identified the next steps that would be required before we ran out of time and other resources.

Returning Back

  • Before my return, I analyzed all the data so as to tie up any loose ends and draw my conclusions.
  • We closed our relations with our hosts with utmost care and warmth, grateful for their generosity in terms of their hospitality and their sharing of their knowledge.
  • We also had a decompression orientation before our departure, so that our return back would be smoother.

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